Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Let's Revise Critical Reading

Im getting bored studying though bukan banyak pun baca. Tomorrow is my least favourite subject exam. In the evening. 230-500 p.m. I just cant help feeling bored. I tried to do something else to ease myelf. But i felt like throwing up. Uhh.. 

This subject is 30% reading. Another 70% is spontaneus. What I meant is, when you get the questions, then you just answer it. The ques is according to passage. And we dont know what passage will be. There's tons of passages in the world. Passage here is essay. Not the other passage (tunnel, path or something). During the SPM years, more or less, like English for Science and Technology (EST). The questions can go beyond what our mind thinks.. Point is, not much study.

However, got to read bout claims, fallacy, figurative language and critics. 

Claims have three types; Facts, Value and Policy.

Claims of Facts
Can be verified, measured, or tested. (I'll say a bit like science)
Example: Smoking is bad for health. (Smoking is proven to be dangerous, with all those experiments and medical cases as evidence)

Claims of Value
Involve matters of taste, moral, opinion, ideas bout right or wrong
Example: Brocolli is better than spinach (It's like something subjective)

Claims of Policy
Argue for a course of action, propose change, identify problem that needs solutions
Key word= SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT
Example: Due to overcrowded classes, Tyneside College should provide more classes

That's it. One part covered, Now, next one is Fallacy.

There are 22 fallacies that we learn in class. But,  I dont think all will be in. 

Faulty Cause
Assume bcause one thing follows another, it was caused by the other
Ex: A black cat crossed Ahmad's path yesterday and, sure enough, he was involved in an automobile accident later that same afternoon. ( Means Ahmad's accident was caused by the cat that crossed the road ) 

Mumdad always say, if there's a chicken or a silly cat on the road, if u can, avoid it, but if there's too many traffics or something, just knocked it. Its not a question how cruel human can be. But, its about your own safety

Sweeping Generalisation
What is true in whole is true at part, what's true most instances, will always be true
Ex: I'd like to take as my wife, but u're not virgin and statistics show that 80% of girls that r no longer virgin used to be prostitutes.

(kerana ramai yg xada dara sblum kawin ni terlibat dlm plcuran, dikatakan semua yg takde dara macam tu. pdhl tak pun. mgkin kna rogol ke aktiviti lasak ke)

In Malay, will be like Dalam setandang pisang, semuanya busuk. 

Hasty Generalisation
Small sample, used as basis for broader generalisation
Ex: All those pop stars are crap, I met with Yusry KRU at the cafe' and asked for his autograph and told me to get lost. (because Yusry sorang je, dikatakan semua pop stars teruk)

Malay, Kerana nila setitik, habis susu setempayan

Faulty Anology
2 things alike in some respects, means that they alike in other respects. (macam nak qias la, tp apa yang nak diqiaskan tu tak sesuai)
Ex: Banning "head' shops from selling drus paraphernalia in order to reduce drug abuse makes about as much sense an banning bikins to reduce prosmiscuity.

Macam nak kata, Ali dan Ahmad bersahabat baik macam masuk kandang kambing mengembek, masuk kandang harimau, mengaum. 

Appeal to Ignorance
Use opponent's inability to disaprove a conclusion as proof of validity of your conclusion-You cant prove I'm right, means that ure wrong-
Ex: The new chemotherapy machine is working well; no patient has returned to complain. 
(maknanya tak ada pesakit yang complain pasal mesin tu, maknanya mesin tu ok)

Ex: If others cant prove my theory that we have 15 planets, that means my thory is right

Bifurcation
maybe this one or that one, but not both or something else
Ex: Either you win or lose this game

False Dilemma
One of it cant be avoided but both have negative consequences
Ex: If you choose a large car, you will face financial problems but if you choose a small car, you will be squashing all your children to fit in it. 

Malay like Ditelan mati emak, diluah mati bapak. 

Faulty Sign
Wrongly assume one event is an indicator of another event
Ex: The cars in front have their lights on; they must be part of funeral procession. (padahal lights on sebab tengah escort raja) 

Ex: Nampak pelangi, mesti nak turun salji.

Damning the Source
Refuse an argument by indicting the source of argument, not the substance (macam tak setuju dengan sesuatu statement, tapi serang peribadi orang yang buat statement tu, bukannya bidas statement tu pun)
Ex: There is no reason to listen to the arguments of those who oppose school payers, for they are the arguments of free-thinkers. 

TU QUOQUE
Pointing to  similar wrong or error committed by another
Ex: Mum, dad, how can you tell me not to involve in drugs while both of you are alcoholic and smokers
Ex: US cannot talk about peace to the world, not as long as they stop their invasion in Iraq and Afghanistan. 

Equivocation
Conclusion is not concerned with premises
Ex: Only man is rational, no woman is a man. (premises)
Therefore, no woman is rational (conclusion)

That's all la kot (alaupun bnyk lg). Tapi, lenguh menaip. Hope this help myslef and others. Pray for me, kawan2. Tq

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